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Why USSR has fallen

Enviado por en 7 enero, 2014 – 22:03Sin comentarios



Although the subject is very extensive and broad, I will try to point what was actually the main reason for USSR to disappear. Many people would say that it was due to economic collapse. Due to inability of communist economic model to sustain itself, the country exhausted its reserves gained after WWII and finally failed to function, leading to lack of supply even for basic commodities and food. Obviously, this is true, but only to some limited extent. What is necessary to figure out is how the country that didn’t experienced big economic problems in previous years has arrived to such ruin.

The answer is lying long before 1991. In 60s, during the government of Nikita Khrushchev USSR started to open its ideological censorship to light political criticism. Although reforms were not radical, but new_builidng_ussr_60important enough, taking into account Stalin’s legacy. Khrushchev also started the economy reform aimed to improve the quality of life for Soviet Citizens. During Krushchev millions of people received free housing in so-called “Khrushevka”, modern for these time solution of pre-fabricated condos that were built by hundreds of thousand across the country. Also, industry started to work to fill these new houses with modern appliances. During this time first satellite “Sputnik” and first man in Space Yuri Gagarin were launched. This period is called Khrushchev Thaw.

As a result of ideological and economic openness, two fractions has formed in Communist Party – liberal and conservative. Though there were no official separation, almost everybody knew the number of politicians who support one or another band. And the rivalry was hard.

Unfortunately Brezhnev, backed by conservative wing of the Party, removed Mr. Khrushchev from his position. This situation actually started the Soviet dismantlement. Brezhnev was perfect leader to seed extreme bureaucracy and corruption among USSR. All liberal supporters were removed from decision-making posts and country embarked into autocratic journey to its end. Everything achieved by Khrushchev were rapidly consumed and nothing new were created. With no debate nor public battle for power, USSR appeared more an absolute monarchy rather than a modern state. And the most important, the responsibility for everything was laid on a single entity – Communist Party. So, any crisis, small or big will automatically trigger the claims for responsibility to this single entity. This was what happened in 1991 and this was why USSR disappeared.

Communist Party did not understood what a great opportunity they had in 60s. If Khrushchev were able to split the power between two, existent at that time, blocks – liberal and conservative the destiny of USSR would not be so clear. Public debate wouldn’t ever lead to the situation when people destroy a country because there’s no meat in shops. They would just vote for the other fraction of the party – the ones who claim to defend interests of people versus increasing military power. Rotating elites – what helped Western world to maintain certain stability diffuse responsibility and channel anger and hope of citizens through elections. Putting the responsibility in a single hand is extremely dangerous for any country since the only way to release the unhappiness is revolution – peaceful or not.


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